Home

😎       The Coolness of Plants       😎


C02  MAY NOT BE THE ONLY ENGINE OF PRESENT GLOBAL WARMING,




Easily accessible method, for any with Internet and a calculator, pages 5-7.

Urbanisation and clearance of plantlife implicated as possibly the main cause of the Northern Hemisphere air temperature rise.

 [ A KWh per M² solution + heat precedes CO2 fit. ]


Links to some other possible causes.

How to do the Math for that assertion, school level only required.

Age 14 and any who were at school at 14.





Just so you know;

I am not an academic, I am an apprentice trained time served Gardener [Derby Parks 1965-1970], who later, during twenty years in Railway manufacturing [British Rail Engineering Ltd. C&W Derby 1975-95 H42 shop, HST Mk IV carriages.] in time worked as a C.N.C.** operator/programmer [very similar to this: Trumpf 180].  Therefore I have earned my living at craftsman’s level in two entirely different disciplines.  [**My thanks to all those who gave me the opportunities with digital machines & T.Q.M. & Clive’s ZX81 it was fun.]


So now please,  patiently pardon my bifid approach to this subject.


In those days Derby Parks was at a peak, and we apprentices learned our Botany from a number of academics; Dr Peter Williams being the one I remember, he was quite open to further questions when we had them.  [Derby and District, Technical College, Kedleston Road Derby. 1965/6/7]


In my lifetime [I’m 67 in 2017] locally we seem to have lost the coldest part of the Winter, Cordyline or Cabbage Tree  [Cordyline indivisa] survived an odd Winter, then a few, now ten or twelve, if we get a freezing dry wind top growth is killed but a 3/4 year old plant by then regrows from below ground.  Snow rare[ish] in recent years. Not only that but the old timers I knew as ‘the apprentice then’ said the winters were getting milder!  [perhaps 80 or more of warming years noticed by gardeners.


So this will be just a bit above school science of the 1960s, with added number work.

But its 2017, download  this file [see end] get it into Google docs, ‘word’ setting & multitask with your browser to check Internet refs, with your calculator at your side. I was about ten when I saw my first ball pen, about 30 when I saw my first calculator 33 when I first used a computer. BEN.

So this should be accessible and understandable by everybody over say 14.


Latin plant names are easy on the www, just type them into your search engine [Google etc.] and its all at your fingertips.



Equipment required: a calculator or the ability to multiply six digits, access to a small piece of wild ground and a similar built area, a small cup or glass of water, a mars bar or any similar energy bar or food, Time up to a year, Library/Internet.  Or read the whole thing and modify to your circumstances, note written U.K. Midlands 52.9° N, 1.4° W


I was also convinced by Al Gore’s “An Inconvenient Truth” -Should he have done it?

It looked right at the time so Yes -that was the responsible thing to do.  But Al Gore did not have Ron McKeown another member of our Derby Heritage Forum pointing out the Cold and Warm phases of History.  


But let us be fair here he raised the alarm, we don’t normally expect those who raise an alarm to do so with all the wisdom of hindsight.  I like many others had noticed the warm trend but looked forward to it, more plant species to grow.  The situation is serious that we see it now is due to Al Gore, regardless of differing ways of understanding things.

Yet pity political fashion turned a science into a sacred cow with repeated mantra[s], and destruction of the heretic’s careers and industries.


So I did an intensive rethink. [& Thanks to all those who put practical criticisms of the all pervasive CO2 warming theory online.] Lots of different views, everyone seemed to have a reason on both sides. It was all the right facts -not necessarily in the right order, so where is the way to sort it out?  If the facts/data is correct have we drawn the right conclusions yet as to what is going on?


We like to think we’re intelligent and maybe we are, on our own ground of expertise, though many of us may be expert in 2,3 or so.  But: how many brain surgeons do you need to build a brick wall? Get it?  We remember to be quiet if the conversation is a subject we are ignorant of!  

Muse on that when people find common cause with the “Experts”,  we/inc. me, as individuals do not possess the whole Human skill & knowledge set.


Committees of well qualified experts can make fools of themselves by allowing the ‘ball’ to bounce where it is that person’s weak point.


So as not to confuse later; do you remember the ice cube weighed down in a test tube of water then the water at the top of the tube is boiled? Showing the hoter floats above the cooler and that still water is a poor conductor of heat.  I suggest there are two Global warming events in progress;

1. A Land based & Atmosphere - Man induced. Discussed herein, {doubt this will melt poles.}

2. A Geological and deep Oceanic - Not Man caused partly regular and historic [Dr Roger Higgs and others work of particular interest to the Derby Heritage Forum, our studies indicate cyclic  higher waters in Derby and Trent to Humber.  Anybody besides our group noticed that during the floods of late, the Medieval Churches tend to be out of the water?] {This may melt poles, have been liquid in past.}


That said the work starts here.

 

There is a question I remember asking in class about planted trays I had seen where the soil under the plants was moist but the exposed soil was dry. Dr Williams said I was mistaken but then others commented they had seen the same thing.  At least I think I asked it, tis; 50+ years ago.

Anyway keep that in mind, you might have seen at the edges of a field crop.  I still had no answer till I did this project.


Visit your Wild & Built or plant free sites, note temperature in sunny weather, gently touch leaves these are cooler or no warmer -some Aroid spadices may be warmer.  Black painted metal work can be too hot in strong sunlight.  Feel the heat effect on some exposed skin and yet the leaves are cool.

Gently means just that never squeeze a leaf to bruise it, the juice/sap may be irritant -you have been warned - light touch only to leaves and hot metal.

Conclusion so far, plants are cool and not just cool temperature cool.


A process named by man as “Transpiration” is thought and taught to be the reason for this.


In a Sunny site [choose with care], place your glass of water & note the level, check it later in the day it will be warm but only slightly lower level.  Dip your finger in the water then blow on it -it will feel cooled.

Conclusion though water evaporates quickly in moving air, when still it simply warms in the sunshine as if reluctant to evaporate, -good news for shallow seasonal ponds.

Now do your own research, Library or Internet find out what a “leaf stomata” and the “mesophyll” is also, look up “pore” as in skin.


-Welcome back, now hold a leaf near your glass of water & knowing the size of stomata ask how much cooling can get out of those tiny holes.  If you were to cover the water with polythene perforated to correspond with stomata holes, how much would it cool?  The gas exchange is probably by Brownian motion.

Now do your own research, Library or Internet find out what Brownian motion is.


As a cooling mechanism I suggest in our Botany we have seriously overestimated and credited Transpiration it is certainly not the whole story maybe only the regulation of plant turgidity [=inflation by internal water pressure.] and maintenance of the Plant’s water column in windy conditions.  Maybe it is accidental confusion of leaf  “stomata” with skin “pore” and assuming a similar purpose, our pores can fair pump moisture onto our skin and produce a dripping wet surface.  Stomata are vents [more akin to an ajar window] to release surplus oxygen letting in carbon dioxide at the same time and I think just accidentally lose some water.  I am not denying this will have some cooling effect due to water's high specific heat, it is just not the whole story and the main cause has been sidestepped, something that works in full sunshine and still air at times.  Many who practice Gardening will have realised by now that you don't give plants that much actual water, when you allow for what drains away, certainly not the amount you need for a cooling unit!

Note: the water pressure in the plant does raise water a constant process, but it is a small amount.  One of the prettier subjects is the Fuchsia [common name is the latin name, it happens], place a small plant in a sealed area or container [so humidity is high] and leave a few hours or overnight. Tiny beads of water/exudate will be found around the edges of the leaves [photogenic], consider the time taken to produce this then take the plant to an open area see how long to dry off,- how much cooling would that quantity in that time frame give in sunshine?  Dew on plants is often this effect it is not always condensation, next time in a dewy morning look to see if dew is only on leaves.

Be wise don’t rip the pages from the text books just yet, maybe  it's a lesser or sometimes  player.  And you are only a the beginning of this.  I shall keep my Brimble safe too, cost me 28s/d. [1967].

Optional: Consider pore diameter and length with xylem diameter and length and resistance factors to fluid flow.

What is going on here?

Forget for awhile the well watered cared for plants, think of those weeds in pavements[sidewalks], where even if the plant were all water it would not be enough to cool it.  You may be in an area where people have fried an egg on a sunny pavement.

[of interest: “Crassulacean acid metabolism”  “Mother in law’s tongue”.]

[I tend to think of plants like ‘bouncy castles’ using water pressure kept up by all the cells using energy to maintain pressure.]


So how are leaves cool?


We now change to an engineering style of work, when something is amiss, you stop, you measure, you check documents, check everything.  Because you know there will be a correct way.


The Mars [bar] effect.

As the grandson of a confectioner [ R E Nash & Son, Heyworth st. Derby], could not resist that. As in all these things there are many other choices.  This is about Kcal in our food, when doing a heavy job for me it was often a Mars [bar] for some extra energy followed by a drink during a break.  Next time you buy a treat save the label and read it, this is an opportunity for a treat in the name of Science.

Note the food calorie is Kcal = 1,000x the laboratory calorie! -kilo 1,000 “kilo-calorie.”

Now do your own research, Library or Internet find out what Kcal and ordinary calorie are.

Also verify the formulae below;


Convert Kcal to Kilowatt Hour

1 Kcal = 0.001163 Kwh


A single Mars bought from our Chaddesden village cooperative store is a 51.0g portion.

The wrapper has the info for energy: 230 Kcal.


230 Kcal x 0.001163 = 0.26749 Kwh that you could run a 1Kw device for 16 minutes.

That is the power equivalent of the treat. (60x0.26749)


I am now retired and so should avoid high calorie foods, but younger men in heavy jobs will burn 2-3000 kilocalories a day.  But I can confirm the Bar was as I remember and passed destructive testing.


The point of numbers are twofold, often it is to find an exact answer, but here it is to visualise the scale of things. Think like an engineer, do the math first.- then talk.

Basic exercise now completed.


It is all too easy to view Nature especially plants as passive but it quietly produces and uses serious amounts of power, so to adjust your thinking:


Let's now proceed to a well known field crop: the Potato; [Solanum tuberosum].


I am using the potato to try and visualise an approximation of the useful amounts of sun power a field plant can use.  Not the exact as that would vary by every degree of latitude, but what the Americans call a “ballpark figure”. =[“an approximation within familiar/known/useful  parameters, all of them know the ballpark!”]  

Now do your own research, Library or Internet find out and check the figures below;


You can get 40 tonnes per hectare [England & Wales figures]

Tonne = 1000 kg

Hectare = 10,000m²

= 4Kg m²  = 4,000g m²


Kcal per 100g 70 to  80  this will vary


I will use 80 Kcal per 100g  80/100 = 0.8 Kcal per gram


4,000g x 0.8 Kcal = 3,200 Kcal


3,200 Kcal x 0.001163 = 3.7216 Kwh from a square metre

It is a ballpark figure, I chose to use the higher 80 Kcal as crops vary by nearly another 10 Tonnes per Hectare if there is plenty of rainfall and overall it is for a square metre result.  If you are not impressed multiply it back for a hectare.


The plant will use some of the energy it captures and the crop is a nett result from the whole [gross] growing process.  Plants build stems and grow upward some lift tarmac all this requires power, they use energy to live as we do.

Energy only converts to another form it is not destroyed, so after noting we do not know how much the gross production is, only the crop nett, we can still draw a useful comment;

The energy collected from the sunshine [the coolness of plants] must be at least equal to the energy in the crop [].  An equal amount of oxygen is released to the amount needed to burn the energy in the crop by whatever animal or athlete has eaten it.  No wonder there is a freshness in the air.

 

  😒   And when a plant is not there, energy just hits the ground or parking space.  😒

With a ballpark figure of 3.7216Kwh per m²  per season, at least.

With a ballpark figure of 37,216.0Kwh per ha  per season, at least. [x 10,000]

With a ballpark figure of 413.5111Kwh per ha  per day, at least. [÷ 90 days, tuber growth estimate. (60-90)]

So here is a math model for where at least some of the heating comes from,

-if from a plant depredation origin.


 Told you it uses serious amounts of power, so did this adjust your thinking?

They’ve paved Paradise now its getting too hot.


I would suggest this is a safer result than one based on ppm of CO2

1 ppm = 0.000001



Compare your Math with CO2 Math.

--------------------

You now have some tools to investigate for yourself.

We hear of places where the temperature is “x” degrees warmer than “y” years ago.

Check out nearby building and other land clearance in those ”y” years.

Check with local history groups, allow for wind air movement.

What is the present potential for warming from the cleared land?

Does the “x” degrees warmer appear as a Global or explainable local effect?

--------------------

Could we be so daring against all professional advice to suggest, that although CO2  may be a greenhouse gas at altitude its use in the living leaf layer make it a net planet coolant?

--------------------



Think carefully, debate, discuss.


This figure is  based on the potato plant’s crop Kcal and can/will scale upwards.  Considering a seed potato is planted which gets the plant to some leaves in the sun, then it grows to a good size, but the crop tubers probably only grow in the last half to quarter of the plant’s life.

I would guesstimate crop Kcal is a quarter to a third of Sun power used but could be much smaller the crop is a savings account to the plant.  The plant is the first user of the Sun power, so the primary byproducts may not be released to us, the power take off is at least the crop Kcal, this is a minimum figure.

There remains a question; just what proportion is the crop of sunlight used? If small then the heating effect without plants will be large; if the crop is a tenth then the heating effect will be ten times as much. This is an ‘X’ factor I leave with my reader.  Of course do we need a more accurate figure, maybe the minimum is sufficient for our purposes?

So I suggest the coolness of plants is a byproduct of sugar phyllofacture [I now think photosynthesis is a misleading term for the whole process] millions and millions of tonnes of sugar enough to power all Nature. The Creator’s example of how to do mega industrial production.

1. Just add water. 2. Stand back.

Industrial,?  Millions of species using the same [in house] energy system, meets some early definitions of the term: “Factory”.

  

[At this stage you'll expect the regular Evolution comment, but to me it has always been ‘All things bright and beautiful…’  and {for me} Darwin’s fairies have no place in the Machine of Nature.

As with chocolates many other Worldviews are available and make little/no difference to the case in point here, though always take care what you swallow.  Seeing Nature as a single integrated construct or ‘machine’ may have helped me?  Maybe a bit Newtonian? ]


That tray of plants with dry bare compost?.... I suggest sunlight dries the bare compost while foliage absorbs some of the sunlight heat without using all the water to cool the compost -hence it stays moist a little longer.  Transpiration may have a partial role, it may vary by species.


You now have some idea of CO2 cooling of the Planet via living plants.

And can show the ballpark math. So make up your own mind on this.


Sorry Al it's all Ron’s fault.


The following is a mixed bag of things to think about:


…………………...

-Those who have experienced a Solar Eclipse, will know the chill that happens, this is one time in your life you can directly feel how much heat the Earth just radiates away. This radiation functions all the time it is only then we can sense it.  So fractions of a degree warmer will not matter that much.


But somebody will say “what about the increased severity of weather”?  -Well if you heat the ground more than foliage would; that heat will rise locally increasing the power of thermals.


Heat is an energy form so Global Warming can Global Energising.


Take a look at one of those satellite pictures of Earth at night,  all those City lights are where the ground gets hotter in the Day than Nature would have it and at night they are all still releasing heat.




In consideration of the proceeding, some word handles.

I suggest the term Photosynthesis is insufficient as the light [photo] is only one of the actions/inputs, it is the leaf which makes the sugar, so I propose Phyllofacture [phyllo-facture: leaf make] as the more accurate description.  But old habits die hard, we know what is meant.  The reaction presently known as photosynthesis is this:

6x “H2O” + 6x “CO2→→→ 1x “C6H12O6” [glucose]

+ 6 xO2 free to air

Which is the basis to power all life on the planet.

Mnemonic ‘pop goes the weasel’


Half a dozen of C O 2

Half a dozen of water

Light it up, stir it around

Glucose a swe-etie.


So, as I understand it, the power of light is used to split the water molecule, which is significant but only part of the actions required, so photosynthesis is part of phyllofacture [-and is a reductive action not a building/synthesis].  Like cutting chips; but,  is it all there is to running a restaurant?


I propose Panphylloclade as a term for the whole phyllofacture processes of Earth, Leaves, fronds algae, plankton all leaf like functioning organisms across the World. [worldwide leaf forms aggregation]

[pan-phylloclade all things functioning as leaves still find this word strange; look up butcher's-broom [Ruscus aculeatus],  -looks like a leaf :does the job of a leaf :but isn't!.]


I propose Panphyllofraction as what is left functioning of the Panphylloclade at any given time. [worldwide leaf fraction ].


& therefore: Panphylloclade minus Panphyllofraction equals the global warming potential (land and atmospheric).

------

What I present here may or may not affect the Oceans, I have no proposals on the Oceanic effects being quite outside of my expertise.  But it could be double the effect I document here, on area alone.


I propose C0 innocent of the said slander the probable cause of global warming over Land being the clearing of the greenery which would cool the local ground and air, this is just inside our sensory range without the maths.  Urbanisation any substance other that plant life heats up.  Remove plants replacing with an inert material can cause immediate heat increase and with no plants use CO so its build up follows the heating [delay due to the atmospheric reservoir of all gases].

The CO2 becomes part of sugar and then part of many life chemicals, which is why all such things can burn and decay, eventually it is released back from some organisms respiration [=it gets breathed out].  CO2  is a vital input for Nature’s energy system, it is a grave error to class it as pollution.  


So I suggest the ‘hockey stick’ is land clearance and urbanisation, heat curve slightly leading the CO2 curve.


[ When re-evaluating my views one of the writers I read [www can’t remember now ‘who’, sorry] suggested the solution might be beyond our grasp with the scale being so large and  subtleties yet un-counted.  A warning I suggest worth keeping in mind. ]


Back to simple science, heat rises.  Can the smoke up a chimney in Birmingham warm the Antarctica's ice sheets from below?  Surely that heat comes from below?  Is heat coming from the deep Oceanic floor?


How much heat is being put into the sea water by smokers & underwater volcanic actions, and is this monitored?


Has the marine phyllofacture been damaged to cause a seawater warming?


I heard a news report which said something like: ‘’C02 was 3 ppm higher than it had ever been in the last 8,000 years.”  Really? They did not state which peer reviewed data was available say for; 02.30 hrs March 2nd 4,025 bc, they should produce that information proof or was this statement a hoax?


Our actual data sampling has only taken place in recent times and as such means we have no real accurate directly observed data for most of the time passed.  We only have temperature data since the invention of thermometers; c1700ce.  The rest are extrapolations, estimates and suppersitions.


Would it not be logical that any condition of climate the Earth had been in before it could return too, maybe that is all?  The Polar regions would always be colder than the rest of the Planet, perhaps Antarctica becoming a ski resort with cruise ships in the Arctic sea wildlife touring, such would be the end of ice desertification.


Enough said ?]


Coal reserves are mineralised carbon no longer used by living things which would have returned CO and continued the cycle.  In practical terms these coal and oil reserves could be called the out of circulation fossilised mega fauna/flora biomass.  Nature may have a large part of its biome reserves locked in mineral forms.

These ought to be burned [=biome return] cleanly, there should be no excuse for pollutions, nowadays.  Carbon fossil suggest to me that at some time in the Coalification process the conditions were anaerobic, which may explain the sulphur content.  Clean a out a leafy stagnant pond you'll see & smell what I mean. [partial decay].


I remember just as the U.K. decided to kill off coal, two firms had produced Room Heaters which burned low grade coal -smokelessly.  One was the now almost extinct Parkray Coalmaster the other was by Rayburn.

------

Greenhouse gas CO2, is used in plant production by burning gas for the plants.

------

Consider a forest fire; all that energy is stored sunlight.

Compare respiration in every living cell; with Hindenburg’s destruction.

-----

1. Do we know what maximum & minimum light levels are for phyllofacture?

Kew and partners in China reported research states plants living at 00.04% of full sunlight, having done some caving I can believe that. RBG KEW Magazine Summer 2018 p39.

2. To what depth it can function in the Oceans?

3. A] Has the full spectrum of sunlight been mapped for effects with modern equipment? B] Can it function with some bands of non visible light?  On tv, I watched a submersible switch on its lights and there was green?

4. Exposure of plants to heat while in total darkness -nil radiation, to find the actual effective transpiration cooling.


White Foliage stripes & spots.

It would seem the Gardener’s view that a variegated plant [ex: Aspidistra elatior variegata], which shows brown dead portions of variegated leaf after strong sunshine are correct in referring to it as scorched, adjacent green portions seem fine. Even as far North as the British Isles, greenhouses may be given a shading to protect leaves from the sunshine.

Gardeners and Botanists make the distinction that variegation is an infection: often irregular and in stripes also does not pass on to seedlings.  Whereas Maculation which is spots or blotches of white or black sort with even{ish} spacing, can be an identifying mark of a species [ex: Arum maculatum], these do not seem to scorch but tend to be about in the colder part of the year fading or greening as the weather warms, and are inherited.

I suspect these maculatum plants are using these spots to generate some heat, a sort of in-leaf cloche.  This idea is because of noting the vigour of such plants in early spring/late winter.  

The Yellow Archangel [Lamium galeobdolon] has locally two forms a with and without maculation[variegation] I note in my garden the maculate/variegated form is much more vigorous in January/February sunshine and outgrows the plainer green form.

Both are beloved by the bees, handsome in flower, Lamium galeobdolon variegatum is a beauty but best avoided like the plague due to its invasive all conquering ways.

I do not have the equipment to measure temperature of such small spots.


For the Aspidistra elatior variegata;

Maybe it is just this, the variegated portion can only cool by transpiration whereas the green portion is cooled in addition by powering the photosynthetic water splitting?


In many respects this theory is less worrying than CO2 causing continual heating for years to come.  As a pause in Land clearance would flatline the heating.  There are still some reasons for concern.  However though an immediate stop on reducing plant life should balance out from then on, limits still exist. I used to think the Planet was in a goldilocks position, but it isn’t unless you consider the goldilocks position is for a planet of plants, without plants it's too close and everywhere would be the Sun’s anvil.

I suggest it is the Panphyllofraction we should carefully watch not  parts per million of CO2

It could be we add “fuel” to an inevitable “fire”, if the cyclic geological/oceanic warming trend is beyond our powers and we cause additional heating by clearance of plant phyllofacture units.

------

Nature operates a Global carbon monopoly/cartel of which we are all shareholders as a birthright, You Me, your Dog, Goldfish, potted plant and lurking spider.

------

Warm & cold historic periods

Late Roman/early Saxon

Pre-Norman

Late Medieval

Little Ice Age 14th to 18th centuries.

It is madness to blame Industry [ok a known polluter] for what maybe only a cyclic event.

We have been warming since “The little Ice Age” ended about the same time urbanisation has been increasing.

  

------

Romans 8 v 28 : Job 38 v 22 & 23 :Revelation 11 v 18.

------

We may be wasting vast amounts of time and money on present CO2 theory.

It may be cheaper to build a nuclear desalination plant and pump clean water to fill the sahara’s dry aquifers, than re-plant our Cities [a Northern Hemisphere desert- check your maps].

------

To be realistic, it may still be a case of everyone is right [a bit] and there must be an accurate attribution of how much effect each theory can be ascribed.  Then which solutions are practical, cost effective, or even possible.

------

Personally I agree the term ‘Global Warming’ with no problems though this may be the sum of hosts of local effects, but I think ‘Climate change’ [& C.C.D.] causes problems.  Perhaps because ‘Climate Change’ is maybe O.T.T., warming is only one single input to climate it being a complex of human felt or sensed factors.   

------

So when the lizard crawls out of the foliage on to a rock, what does that show us?

------

Now multiple the minimum figure 3.7216Kwh per m²  per season for a square kilometer.

------



Brian E Nash 14/7/2014 Derby U.K.

Updated Sept 2018  

I reserve the title and all rights of this to myself & apologise now  for all my mistakes: markeaton.info@gmail.com  .  Verbatim copies permitted without any limit or charge, can be made as required provided this permission note is included.  Proforma 1st copies to Derby Heritage Forum 11/7/2017. This is an informal group who talk about the History of our City, each of whom very much has their own views and projects www.derbyheritageforum.co.uk/  We meet most Tuesdays, interested?   Then contact: ron@derbyheritageforum.co.uk - yes the same Ron. Published via my Google a/c 12/7/2014.  All titles of any person, product or group mentioned is reserved to themselves or owners.

Any person or group mentioned should not be presumed to agree or endorse any thing

presented in the text without their express consent.


Copy on Google docs [always most up to date version from my tablet]:


https://docs.google.com/document/d/11XHQ_oZKdEdDh_9SL_HRr7kTzqPcjwLuvKFF7yPZh2Y/edit?usp=sharing


Note: There is some formatting loss when converted to other document types.


Copy in Word format:

http://derby-in-derbyshire.org.uk/KWH_by_M2.docx


Website host:

http://derby-in-derbyshire.org.uk/the_coolness_of_plants.html


Epub version:

http://derby-in-derbyshire.org.uk/coolness.epub


On printed copies where the hyperlinks are underlined the underscore characters disappear under the underline so here these are so you can copy the underscores:


“/d/11XHQ_oZKdEdDh_9SL_HRr7kTzqPcjwLuvKFF7yPZh2Y/edit?usp=sharing”

“derby-in-derbyshire.org.uk/KWH_by_M2.docx”

“derby-in-derbyshire.org.uk/the_coolness_of_plants.html”

No underscores in epub file.


I don't do social media, so if anybody puts it on such a medium they will be first -be my guest.


End.